The gothic architecture originated in France in the second half of the 11th century, and was an architectural style popular in Europe from the 13th to 15th centuries. Mainly found in the Catholic Church, but also affect the secular architecture. Gothic architecture occupies an important position in the history of architecture with its superb technology and artistic achievements.
The structural system of the gothic church is composed of skeleton vouchers and flying buttresses. The basic unit is to make a double-circle skeleton vouchers on a square or rectangular flat column with four sides and one diagonal line. The roof slate is placed on the vouchers to form a vault. In this way, coupons with the same height, and the height can be made on different spans. The weight of the vaults is light and the intersections are clear, which reduces the thrust of the coupons and simplifies the construction.
Since it used the architectural forms such as sharp vouchers, pointed arches, and flying buttresses, the internal space of the Gothic church is high, simple, and unified. The decoration details are also made of sharp vouchers as the theme, so that the architectural style and structure techniques form an organic whole.
Baroque architecture is an architectural and decorative style developed on the basis of Italian Renaissance architecture from 17th to 18th century. It is characterized by its freeform appearance, pursuing dynamics, its affluent decoration and carving, and strong colors. It is often used with interspersed surfaces and elliptical spaces.
The original meaning of the word “baroque” was “strange and eccentric”, and it was used by classicalists to call it an architectural style considered to be deviant. This style played an important role in opposing rigid classical forms, pursuing free and unrestrained styles, and expressing secular appeals. It had an impact on city squares, garden art and even literature and arts departments, and was once widely popular in Europe.
After more than two hundred years of development, the Romanesque art had developed into "Gothic art" in France in the twelfth century, and then it has extended to all Europe. It then continued until the fifteenth century. However, in some parts of Europe, Romanesque art’s extension do not only to the thirteenth century but also to the fifteenth century.
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